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ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer

ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer ; MILITARY U.S. (ID = 2525179) Computer & SPmodules
 
ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer ; MILITARY U.S. (ID = 2525180) Computer & SPmodules
 
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ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer ; MILITARY U.S. (ID = 2525181) Computer & SPmodules
 
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ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer ; MILITARY U.S. (ID = 1958753) Computer & SPmodules
MILITARY U.S.: ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer [Computer & SPmodules] ID = 1958753 1024x740
Select picture or schematic to display from thumbnails on the right and click for download.
For model ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer, MILITARY U.S. (different makers for same model):
Cpl. Irwin Goldstein (foreground) sets the switches on one of the ENIAC's function tables at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. (U.S. Army photo)
The original photo can be seen in the article: (April 1946). “Lightning Strikes Mathematics“. Popular Science: 83–86. Retrieved on 15 April 2012.
 
Country:  United States of America (USA)
Manufacturer / Brand:  MILITARY U.S. (different makers for same model)
Year: 1946 Category: Signal Processing and Computing
Valves / Tubes 17468: 6SN7 6L7 6SJ7 6SA7 6AC7 6L6 6V6
Wave bands - without
Details
Loudspeaker - - No sound reproduction output.
Power out
from Radiomuseum.org Model: ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer - MILITARY U.S. different makers
Material Metal case, TUBES VISIBLE
Shape Rack
Dimensions (WHD) 30000 x 2400 x 900 mm / 1181.1 x 94.5 x 35.4 inch
Notes

The ENIAC was the first electronic digital universal computer built at Pennsylvania University in 1944-1946. Although ENIAC was designed and primarily used to calculate artillery firing tables for the United States Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory.

ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7200 crystal diodes, 1500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and approximately 5,000,000 hand-soldered joints.
ENIAC occupied 167m2 (1800 ft2) and consumed 150 kW of electricity.

ENIAC used ten-position ring counters to store digits; each digit required 36 vacuum tubes, 10 of which were the dual triodes making up the flip-flops of the ring counter.

ENIAC had 20 ten-digit signed accumulators, which used ten's complement representation and could perform 5000 simple addition or subtraction operations between any of them and a source (e.g., another accumulator or a constant transmitter) every second. It was possible to connect several accumulators to run simultaneously, so the peak speed of operation was potentially much higher, due to parallel operation.

The other 9 units in ENIAC were the Initiating Unit (started and stopped the machine), the Cycling Unit (used for synchronizing the other units), the Master Programmer (controlled "loop" sequencing), the Reader (controlled an IBM punch-card reader), the Printer (controlled an IBM card punch), the Constant Transmitter and 3 function tables.

The basic machine cycle was 200 microseconds (20 cycles of the 100 kHz clock in the cycling unit), or 5,000 cycles per second for operations on the 10-digit numbers. In one of these cycles, ENIAC could write a number to a register, read a number from a register, or add/subtract two numbers.

ENIAC used common octal-base radio tubes of the day; the decimal accumulators were made of 6SN7 flip-flops, while 6L7's, 6SJ7's, 6SA7's and 6AC7's were used in logic functions. Numerous 6L6's and 6V6's served as line drivers to drive pulses through cables between rack assemblies.

Several tubes burned out almost every day, leaving it nonfunctional about half the time. Special high-reliability tubes were not available until 1948. Most of these failures, however, occurred during the warm-up and cool-down periods, when the tube heaters and cathodes were under the most thermal stress. Engineers reduced ENIAC's tube failures to the more acceptable rate of one tube every two days. According to a 1989 interview with Eckert, "We had a tube fail about every two days and we could locate the problem within 15 minutes." In 1954, the longest continuous period of operation without a failure was 116 hours—close to five days.

ENIAC could be programmed to perform complex sequences of operations, including loops, branches, and subroutines. The task of taking a problem and mapping it onto the machine usually took weeks. After the program was figured out on paper, the process of getting the program into ENIAC by manipulating its switches and cables could take days.

ENIAC  was formally accepted by the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps in July 1946. ENIAC was shut down on November 9, 1946 for a refurbishment and a memory upgrade, and was transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland in 1947. There, on July 29, 1947, it was turned on and was in continuous operation until 11:45 p.m. on October 2, 1955.

Pieces of ENIAC are held by Museums. See links below.

Net weight (2.2 lb = 1 kg) 27000 kg / 59471 lb 5.9 oz (59471.366 lb)
Price in first year of sale 500'000.00 US-$
Mentioned in Wikipedia

Model page created by Heribert Jung. See "Data change" for further contributors.



All listed radios etc. from MILITARY U.S. (different makers for same model)
Here you find 348 models, 302 with images and 168 with schematics for wireless sets etc. In French: TSF for Télégraphie sans fil.




  
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