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List of manufacturers People's Republic of China

List of radio manufacturers: the radio manufacturers of German-speaking countries and a beginning for other countries. Please inform us of other radio manufacturers.
Alle   A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
Firm name starts with: To limit them: Select country:
 
 
Text/Pictures for People's Republic of China 
 
  Manufacturers by alphabet Model count Models with Total Text about manufacturer available
Total <1930 >1942 Pictures available Schematics available Images and schematics available Tubes available Transistors available Pictures available Schematics available
  127 | 0   127 121 13 9   121 749 153 2
  375 | 1   374 348 9 9 10 328 1786 13 1
 
Under the term radio manufacturer, we also include producers, for example, of parts of radios, "radio-related equipment", etc. produced for companies or commercial radio. Manufacturers of old radios are as covered as completely as possible for the German-speaking countries, but only partially for other countries. There are thousands of radio manufacturers.

Text/Pictures for People's Republic of China


Here we bring the radio history of China - since the beginning. See different forum postings. But first one has to understand the different situations China was faced to. We do not differ the country names during the time like the Dynasties until 1911, following the Republic of China or the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) of today. Quite some years before China was a republic at least in the Western World radio experiments were undertaken. There were even singular broadcasts realized in 1907. Further down we learn what was done in China in this respect.

In short about the political situation then and about the changes - up to the founding of the PRC:
Frustrated by the Qing court's resistance to reform and by China's weakness, young officials, military officers, and students-inspired by the revolutionary ideas of Sun Yat-sen -began to advocate the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the creation of a republic.

A revolutionary military uprising, the Wuchang Uprising, began on October 10, 1911 in Wuhan. The provisional government of the Republic of China was formed in Nanjing on March 12, 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as President, but Sun was forced to turn power over to Yuan Shikai, who commanded the New Army and was Prime Minister under the Qing government, as part of the agreement to let the last Qing monarch abdicate (a decision Sun would later regret). Over the next few years, Yuan proceeded to abolish the national and provincial assemblies, and declared himself emperor in late 1915. Yuan's imperial ambitions were fiercely opposed by his subordinates; faced with the prospect of rebellion, he abdicated in March 1916, and died in June of that year. His death left a power vacuum in China; the republican government was all but shattered. This ushered in the warlord era, during which much of the country was ruled by shifting coalitions of competing provincial military leaders.

In 1919, the May Fourth Movement began as a response to the terms imposed on China by the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I, but quickly became a protest movement about the domestic situation in China. The discrediting of liberal Western philosophy amongst Chinese intellectuals was followed by the adoption of more radical lines of thought. This in turn planted the seeds for the irreconcilable conflict between the left and right in China that would dominate Chinese history for the rest of the century.

In the 1920s, Sun Yat-Sen established a revolutionary base in south China, and set out to unite the fragmented nation. With Soviet assistance, he entered into an alliance with the fledgling Communist Party of China. After Sun's death from cancer in 1925, one of his protégés, Chiang Kai-shek, seized control of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party or KMT) and succeeded in bringing most of south and central China under its rule in a military campaign known as the Northern Expedition. Having defeated the warlords in south and central China by military force, Chiang was able to secure the nominal allegiance of the warlords in the North. In 1927, Chiang turned on the CPC and relentlessly chased the CPC armies and its leaders from their bases in southern and eastern China. In 1934/35, driven from their mountain bases such as the Chinese Soviet Republic, the CPC forces embarked on the Long March across China's most desolate terrain to the northwest, where they established a guerrilla base at Yan'an in Shaanxi Province.

During the Long March, the communists reorganized under a new leader, Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung). The bitter struggle between the KMT and the CPC continued, openly or clandestinely, through the 14-year long Japanese occupation (1931-1945) of various parts of the country. The two Chinese parties nominally formed a united front to oppose the Japanese in 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), which became a part of World War II. Following the defeat of Japan in 1945, the war between the KMT and the CPC resumed, after failed attempts at reconciliation and a negotiated settlement. By 1949, the CPC had occupied most of the country.

Roughly we can say that radio before the end of WW2 was a matter of the Republic of China and after the the founding of PRC it was a state business until about 1978. Then privatization was getting under way.

After war and civil war, in 1949, when the Peoples Republic of China was founded, it was very difficult to get control of the country. Soon the communist party aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society through the process of agriculturalization, industrialization, and collectivization. Mao Zedong led the campaign based on the Theory of Productive Forces, and intensified it after being informed of the impending disaster from grain shortages. Agricultural collectives began with "mutual aid teams" and this over the years ended in ever greater units.

Internal passports (called the hukou system) were introduced in 1956, forbidding travel without appropriate authorization. In 1957 Mao responded to the tensions in the Party by promoting free speech and criticism under the 100 Flowers Campaign. A very difficult time with many changes began with the Great Leap Forward 大跃进 in 1958 to 1961. One good side was that the opium crop was destroyed and replaced with crops like rice. The other: Attempts were made to enhance rural education and the status of women (allowing females to initiate divorce if they desired) and ending foot-binding, child marriage and opium addiction. In 1958 simplified Chinese instead of traditional Chinese was introduced and made obligatory. The fact is that with pinyin and the simplified characters the PRC moved from 80% illliteracy in the 50's to practically 100% literacy today.....but so did Taiwan. The children in PRC only learn simplified Chineses and start with pinyin to help them but later they don't use it but the simplified characters (Hanzi). The foreigners use pinyin.

1966 began the second disaster: Mao, a very idealistic leader, used his personal influence (many years of brain washing) to call up youngsters to throw up the government (the so called capitalist), these youngsters called themselves revolutionist and changed almost every name to show their loyalty to Mao. Many people died or were deported to remote regions. Many names of radios were changed. Mao successed to get rid of many of his colleagues in the Cultural Revolution during 1966-1976. When he died in 1976 the party decided to end this tragedy and arrested Mao's wife, director of Cultural Revolution Team (De Facto central government in the period), she was sentenced life in prison and committed suicide in 1991. Beginning about 1978, soon there was private enterprise possible and the industry began to flourish.

The state owned manufacturers had no real names but were mostly called first by the city of operation, often followed by a number (as in the USSR). Normally a brand was established plus a type number for the radio. Together that is the designation. But such a brand could be used by several manufacturers. The manufacturer identification can sometimes be found at the rear of a set, but not always. This depends on different manufacturers, some did put their factory name on the radio, for instance in the case of Shanghai 144. Members create a new model page if they don't find a model for the manufacturer found on a set. For models without factory indication we provided the "manufacturer" unknown. That is resulting in a model per manufacturer plus for "unknown" if we are complete. Fortunately this necesary spreading of a model is not very common.

Languages in China:
Only with the help of our member Paul Fok in Hong Kong I could add this essential text about the language issue which is necessary to understand certain things:
China had one unified written characters (the traditional Chinese) for 2231 years since the Qin Dynasty 秦朝 (221 BC) . Before the Qin Dynasty, China had many small states like Europe still has. It was the emperor of the Qing Dynasty who unified China into a large country. He also unified the written languages, units and measurements, etc. for China. So the traditional Chinese characters were used since then. One has to consider that in China there are thousands of dialects as local spoken Chinese because the Chinese words are not phonetic by alphabets. Each dialect is so different that sometimes it would be impossible for people to understand each other, but the written Chinese words (traditional Chinese) for all dialects (before 1960) were the same. Puthonghua (Mandarin) is now the official language.

Different Chinese dialects pronounce the Chinese characters differently because the Chinese language is not using alphabets and could not pronounce the characters by the spelling method. After 1960, the new Chinese government introduced simplified Chinese characters in the Chinese mainland. At first, the simplified Chinese was used in Chinese mainland only. All overseas Chinese including, Singapore, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan still used and are still using (except for Singapore) the Traditional Chinese. Taiwan is mandarin speaking, Hong Kong and Macau is Cantonese speaking, but all people in these districts still use the traditional Chinese. After China was admitted to the United Nations in 1971, the UN pronounced that simplified Chinese characters is the official language for China. So, Singapore join in to use the simplified Chinese. Chinese people in the US, Canada, Australia, Europe, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau still use the traditional Chinese for everyday use. However, more and more people are literate to both simplified and traditional Chinese now, because it is not difficult to learn and both characters are very similar.

Regarding China we have to differ betwen spoken words, written language and customs very much. Because early Chinese migrants mainly came from Guangdong aera, Cantonese is used by this group so their spelling and cooking became very familiar in western Countries. They called cities like Beijing in Cantonese as Peking. Cantonese Tientsin is Tianjin, Shanton is Shandong etc. Only slowly this is changing.

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Forum contributions about this country
People's Republic of China
Threads: 4 | Posts: 12
Hits: 15312     Replies: 5
  Radio History of Shanghai, China
Songping Wan
19.May.10
 
  1

This is a translation of Chinese post found on leowood bbs; I have obtained permission from author ZTL to translate and publish on RadioMuseum. I will translate little by little and post here when time is available.

 

In Winter 1922, American journalist E. G. Osborn established the first radio broadcast station in China, a 50 watt radio tower located on the rooftop of Robert Dollar Building on Guangdong Road, Shanghai.  Osborn had a business partner Zeng Jun, a Chinese living in Japan, and they formed the Radio Corporation of China, registered as an American company to sell radio receivers in Shanghai.  The station was named the Osborn Radio Station, which started broadcasting at 8 PM, January 23, 1923, and it created a sensation in Shanghai. In a few days 500 radio receivers (later renamed Radio) were sold.  This was the first radio station and the first radio company in the history of China. Later on, many more radio stations were established, and radio became popular in Shanghai. In the early days, radios were imported, mainly from the US. Crystal radio sets and tube radios were available in Shanghai, with crystal sets being the most popular.

* more readings: Brief History of Broadcasting Stations in Shanghai

*Poster comment: The Osborn Radio Station was in business for only a few months.  It had financial issues, but the most important reason for its demise was its legal status, because the Northern Government didn't have a law to allow civilian radio broadcasting at that time.

Robert Dollar Building, built in 1921, now located on 51 Guangdong Road, Shanghai

In August 1924, the Ministry of Transportation announced interim provisions for broadcast radio receivers, allowing the public to assemble and use radio receivers. The Shanghai Construction Committee established the Shanghai Wireless Machinery Factory to make seven-tube AC powered radios from imported components.  City residents slowly started to assemble radio receivers; many adopted regenerative circuits. Mr. Yan Jingyu from Shanghai Jiande Savings Society successfully assembled a superheterodyne receiver the same month. In Oct. 1925, Ama Radio Co., Ltd. successfully manufactured crystal radios and vacuum tube radios in Songjiang Library.  These radios not only received broadcast from Shanghai, they also received music programs from broadcast stations in Japan.  Ama Radio had been established on October 8, 1924 by seven siblings Su Zufei, Su Zugui, Su Zuxiu, Su Zuguo, Su Zuyao, and Su Zuguang, and was the first Chinese domestic capital electronics company.  Ama set up a factory, a retail department, a repair department, a broadcast station, and a publishing house to manufacture and sell electronic components, radio equipment, books, crystal radios, and vacuum tube radios. In July 1952, Ama Radio Co., Ltd. merged with YaNan Fabrication Company and changed its name to AMA Mechanical and Electronic Co. Ltd. The Electronic Branch of AMA changed its name to AMA No.2 Electronic Factory in 1955, and became the AMA Electronic Factory in 1957.  In 1966 it became the Shanghai No. 26 Wireless Factory.

In 1932, Cheng Quan set up the Amateur Wireless Society. Starting in 1934, the society made paper inductance components, and published the "Three Day Radio Magazine" and other technical books. On January 5, 1933, Ama Radio Co., Ltd. published "China Radio" fortnightly, which became a monthly magazine in 1938. Publication ended on 5 March, 1942 after the third issue of volume 10. "China Radio" magazine was published for almost 10 years without interruption.

China Radio issue 1 volume 2

China Radio issue 22 volume 4

China Radio issue 3 volume 9

Songping Wan
03.Jun.10
  2

In October 1933, Ama Radio Co., Ltd. started to sell its 1001 crystal radio.  Due to its compact size, low cost, and good reception, it was well received by general public. In October 1935, Ama designed and made China's first  superheterodyne AM radio, the model 1651 with five tubes.  Ama became the first company to commercialize radio production. Except for tubes and carbon resistors, the 1651 used in-house manufactured components such as RF/IF/power transformers and coils.  The specifications of the 1651 were equal to imported models but it sold for only half the price, which was very attractive to consumers. Following the 1651, Ama made the 1641 four-tube model and dual band models 5TS5 and 5TS6.  Because their design conformed to the local Shanghai 50 Hz electricity standard and were suitable for the local climate, they had a long working life and a competitive advantage over imported radios.  Because of this Ama established a very good reputation in Shanghai.

1001 Crystal radio advertisement

1001 Crystal radio advertisement (note its price is 3 silver dollars)

 

Ama 1651 radio advertisement

Ama 1651

 

Ama workshop in 1930s

In 1930s, other manufacturers started to make radios. Among them, Zhongyong Wireless Factory (Established in Oct. 1930) had a fairly large scale, second only to Ama Radio Co., Ltd., and made one tube three-circuit radios and DC three tube radios. Other radio companies included Huachang Wireless Apparatus Factory, Shaodun Electronic Company (established in May 1925), and Ya Er Electronic Factory, which made many radios ranging from one tube to five tube models. Although their manufacturing facility fell behind and not a great number of radios were made, these radios nevertheless represent one period of Chinese radio history. Ama, Mofanle and Liangyou (Good Friend) were reputable brands. The Mofanle five-tube radio made by Ya Er Electronic Factory started selling in Thailand in 1937; Ya Er became the first exporting Chinese radio manufacturer.

Zhongyong 101

Zhongyong radio advertisement

Ernst Erb
18.Jul.10
  3

This link to the top view enables the reader to get the full sketch about the radio history in China. The tow view article lists the different articles about the Chinese radio history and gives an overview - also about literature we know of etc.

We are at the beginning of this framework and thankful for any cooperation. There is a lot to do until this is really informative as a reference work.

Songping Wan
21.Jul.10
  4

In 1936, along with technology development, radio became much more popular in Shanghai, total number reached more than 100,000, but almost all of them are foreign made products, competition kept domestic radio manufacturing industry a slow development pace. July 1937, the Sino-Japanese War broke out, a big hit to the Shanghai radio manufacturing industry. On December 18, 1942, Japanese occupation force prohibited the use of radios with more than seven tubes, and forced users to remove shortwave coil of radios with six tubes and below, production came to a stop, Ama Radio Co., Ltd. converted to make "Triangle" brand bicycle chains,  Liwen Wireless Company (founded in November 1939) instead to make bicycle seats.
   
After the end of World War II in 1945, Shanghai radio manufacturing industry resumed radio production.  Ama Radio Co., Ltd resumed radio broadcasting and radio production business. New radio manufacturing companies started to appear in the market, such as Hongyin Wireless Equipment Factory,  Liwen Wireless Company (changed name into Liwen Wireless Equipment Factory in 1948; after 1949, gradually become a professional speaker production factory; July 1959, merged with Oriental  Electric Factory; August 1960, split into two factories, the speakers workshops changed into Shanghai No. 11 Wireless Factory, its radio and amplifier workshop turned into Shanghai No. 2 Wireless Factory), Fudan Electric Equipment Factory,  Wanli Electric Equipment Factory, Tianhe Electric and Chemical Industrial Society and Zhongxing Wireless Equipment Factory.

Philo one tube radio and crystal set

Philo one tube radio and crystal set advertisement

Songping Wan
10.Aug.10
  5

June 1946, Head Office of Central Government National Resources Commission moved to Shanghai, preparing to set up Central Wireless Equipment Co. Ltd, the Head Office becomes management division of the company. In July the same year, Central Broadcasting Equipment Maintenance and Manufacture Station, subsidiary of National Government Broadcasting Administration moved to Shanghai. July 1st 1947, Central Wireless Equipment Co. Ltd formally established. (The company together with Central Broadcasting Equipment Maintenance and Manufacture Station came under military control after China Communist Party took power in 1949. In June 1949, Central Broadcasting Equipment Maintenance and Manufacture Station was renamed Shanghai Broadcasting Equipment Maintenance and Manufacture Factory, and resumed production. On May 3rd, 1950, four electronics/communications factories including Shanghai Broadcasting Equipment Maintenance and Manufacture Factory, China Record Factory moved to Beijing, to help build the Beijing People’s Broadcasting Equipment Factory.) The research division under Central Wireless Equipment Co. Ltd was expanded into a research institute and workshop added. The research workshop made “Resources” brand table and floor-standing high quality 8-tube radios, AC power stabilizers, Radio and Auto-Change Record Players. After 1949, the research institute was put under the Bureau of Telecommunications, Ministry of Heavy Industry and renamed Shanghai Electronics Research Institute, and moved to Beijing in Autumn 1952.

Resources BR6-2A radio


At the end of 1947, there were 590 electronics related factories and companies in Shanghai, in which 235 are wireless companies/factories. Because many of the components were imported, and lowly paid assembly cost, domestic radio manufacturing industry had a hard time to survive. In early 1949, before the communist government took power, 30% of the wireless industry were shut down or semi shut down, only 7 factories were making radios and components, with a total of 113 workers employed.

Songping Wan
11.Aug.10
  6

May 27, 1949 the communist People's Liberation Army entered Shanghai and ended the Nationalist Government control. From 1949 to 1952, the new government gave a big support to private radio business, production generally improved, there were 558 telecommunications equipment manufacturers established in this period and 2032 workers employed. From 1952 to 1955, radio production increased 10-fold.

On July 21st, 1952, the Broadcasting Material Division of Shanghai People's Broadcasting Station expanded into the first state-owned wireless assembling manufacturer - Eastern China Broadcasting Equipment Factory, it was renamed Shanghai People's Broadcasting Equipment Factory in April 1953, and renamed again into National Shanghai Broadcasting Equipment Factory in Jan. 1955. This factory made the first batch of type 155 five-tube radio under the new government in Feb. 1955. August the same year, pioneered  production of Shanghai 354, Shanghai 355 five-tube two-band super-heterodyne  radios using the assembly line technology. In Apr. 1956, started radio export, signaled the domestic industrialization of radio production in China. In 1957, Shanghai Broadcasting Equipment Factory started to develop car radio for the Changchun No.1 Vehicle Factory's high end Red-Flag sedan, in Sep. 1958, developed the Shanghai 382 auto-tuning car radio, during the research and development, the factory solved  lattice coil and whip antenna production issues. Shanghai 382 was formally made from 1959, until the end of 1960, 643  Shanghai 382 car radios were made. In April 1958, the factory made the first class1 Shanghai 131 seven-tube radio, this radio won the first prize in the Second National Broadcasting Radio Competition in 1959. 58,773 sets of Shanghai 131 were made, 6,700 were exported in the life time. In 1962, Shanghai 131 was transferred to Shanghai No. 2 Wireless Factory to manufacture. Based on Shanghai 131, the factory developed Shanghai 531 seven-tube four-band super-heterodyne floor standing radio and Shanghai 532 fourteen-tube full-band super-heterodyne radio receiver, record player and sound recorder multifunctional radio, the 531 and 532 model all exceeded national class1 radio standards. Between 1953 to 1957, the radio production of this factory accounted for 25.6% of national radio productions, many models were exported. From 1952 to 1959, major products from this factory are radios and amplifiers, a total of 13 types 58 models of radio were developed.

Shanghai 131

 

Shanghai 142

 

Shanghai 152

Shanghai 154

Shanghai 155

Shanghai 155-A

Shanghai 135

Shanghai 156-A

Shanghai 156-A (Different design)

Shanghai 156-B

Mother Country 158

Shanghai 159

Shanghai 161

Shanghai 354/355

Shanghai 553

Shanghai 157-B

Shanghai 157-D

Shanghai 157-H

Shanghai 157-M

Shanghai 157 Manual

Metto 382 Car Radio

Shanghai 451

Shanghai 451 Wood

Shanghai 451 Manual

Wireless Technology (Shanghai 451 Special Edition)

People's Daily (Report on new radio models)

Shanghai 131 (Different Design)

Shanghai 132

Shanghai 132-1

Shanghai 133

Shanghai 531

Shanghai 532

Shanghai (Model to be identified)

Shanghai Broadcasting Equipment Factory Flyer

 

 
Hits: 8156     Replies: 1
The History of Radio Industry in China mainland
Ernst Erb
18.Jul.10
  1

The History of Radio Industry in China

An overview about the different articles in the forum of Radiomuseum.org


Our member Taili ZHANG (known also as "ZTL" in Chinese forums) has written several well researched articles about the history of radio industry in different Chinese provinces or cities. These articles do not start at the time of PRC but often before - at the beginning of China's radio history. He has published for years in different Chinese forums and started to be active here after I saw him in Beijing in Spring 2010.

In order that he can concentrate on new things he asked me to find people who can translate from Chinese into either English or German (or one of our "flagged languages"). This person can easily contact me with the
contact form - or as a member by looking up the member list.

The idea of this article is to let a reader follow through all of this kind of articles - maybe also written by other editors. This should become the top view of the framework.


Later we will publish here a map of China with its Provinces and big cities which played a major part in the radio industry in China and give some summaries about them. You will also find other links which lead to more knowledge about radio literature, special radio models, maybe also a list of brands and manufacturers etc. The general aspects in the radio years for China you find at the main text about China.

Here you find a story about how I see China in 2010, compared to India. It may be seen as an unbalanced picture - since it is only a glance from a holiday. It was also translated to Chinese by Paul Fok, HongKong.

At present it will only be a place to link together some articles realized and a place for some which are still only available in Chinese forums - in Chinese characters. Then we know what has to be done later. The articles will have a link to here.

List of Articles about Radio History for different Provinces and Cities in China

Shanghai (Original article in Chinese)

This is the place where the first broadcasting happened in China. Shanghai is still the most important port in China, maybe of the world. In the first decades of broadcast, Shanghai was also the city with the greatest radio industry.

See here how 无线电三厂 can also be written - also in a late document. The brand is in English "Metto" of 美多 for Meiduo (美 měi​ = America / beautiful, 多 duō​ = many, much).
Picture by courtesy of member Taili Zhang, Beijing.

 

Fujian Province

History articles made and pointed out by ZTL - to be translated later:

Beijing

Jiangsu Province

Hubei Province

Tianjin

3 Provinces of Northeast China: Heilongjiang Province, Jilin Province and Liaoning Province

A number of provinces:
Shandong Province, Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region,
Sichuan Province (include Chongqing) and Yunnan Province.

An other basket of provinces:
Anhui Province, Fujian Province, Hebei Province, Henan Province, Hunan Province, Jiangxi Province, Shanxi Province and Xinjiang Autonomous Region.

Above you find Fujian Province - which is the second part of this basket. For having shorter articles we extract each venue separately. It will be easier for the reader - if we list later also other things like the brands etc. for such an article.

Chinese Radio Manuals with Schematics

We know at the moment of about 30 radio manuals with schematics, sometimes also with other technical data, descriptions or pictures.

Here I build up a link list to descriptions for each schematic manual (also called atlas or book) we have details of. Sometimes these manuals show a number, indicating that it is a family of similar books, most don't. The manuals can be about a certain manufacturer or brand or a certain time or type of models - or a region etc. To have a unique number we use here a two digit numbering system. Each of the ones used gets an entry at the list of literature. This should be chosen if somebody creates new models form one - or finds models which are already up but without that reference. Sometimes a model gets several references or all references are already taken.

When scanning schematics from them or uploading then we first also bring in that manual to the list to choose from at the "Schematic Finder".

Manuals entered as Literature and in the Schematic Finder, Uploads done.
All manuals show in front the country (here PRC) for a quick finding when uploading schematics from or when looking for schematics.

01-Transistor Radio Manual, 1972 (2nd ed., 2nd print from 1983, 351 pages, 162 models)

09-Broadcast Radio Manual 1958-1 (91 pages, 25 tube radio models)

10-Broadcast Radio Manual 1958/59 (306 pages, 155 tube radios)

Manuals not yet prepared
If possible we scan the front of the manual and list the models contained there in a thread per manual. Here you will find the links to such manuals.

We show a thread here about some Chinese literature etc. in general. 
 

02-Radio Manual, no date (380 pages) Creation of models and upload schematics in progress.
Not quality, but good source for new models (359 models).

11-Radio Manual 1965 (No.2, green, 220 pages, ca. 104 models, mainly tube radios)
(Scan by Taili Zhang, ZTL)
 

16-Radio Manual Shanghai No.2 Radio Factory, 1981 (71 pages, 24 models, different years)
(Scan by Taili Zhang, ZTL)

19-Shanghai 101 Factory, 1981: 58 pages for 26 models from 1970 to 1981 of this factory only.
(Scan by Taili Zhang, ZTL)

Ernst Erb
19.Jul.10
  2

China's naming of manufacturers

and brands


We face a difficult situation about naming the radios and the manufacturers in China. For some things we have different possible ways to name a manufacturer or a model - and we will have to try to do it as the majority in China does. We can differentiate at least 3 problems:

1 Naming the right company
2 Naming the company the right way
3 Naming the model

Here I present the problems faced - and reasons for the chosen solution.


Naming the right company

Having documentation of the manufacturer it is easy to find the manufacturer's name -
and most often also the brand and model name.
Picture by courtesy of ZTL.
 

To make it short I bring a simple case - but already with its conflict with evolving a second manufacturer.

Typical example of different naming of the same manufacturer:

1
Fuzhou Telecommunications Equipment Factory opened on May 25, 1958,after it began to produce Fuzhou-brand radio and Camellia-brand radios, Camellia-brand GS-1 included.

2
In 1960, Fuzhou Telecommunications Equipment Factory changed to Fuzhou Wireless Factory. That was the time when for instance model GS-1 was made. They went on manufacturing radios etc. In 1965 was the print of this manual!

3
In February 1966, Fuzhou Wireless Factory changed to Fujian Wireless Factory, moved to Nanping, and changed to produce other electronic products, except radios.

4
Other company formed
At about the same time Fuzhou City has rebuilt Fuzhou Wireless Factory on the foundation of former workshop. Some workers stayed, but this is now another entity. It continued to develop and produce transistor radios.

5
In 1970 this name was changed to Fuzhou 1st Wireless Factory.

6
In 1984 it changed the name to Fuzhou Radio Instrument General-Factory. See "The History of Radio Industry in Fujian Province".

Another problem:

Since we would like to find the model easily in the database by typing what we find on a model, we should name the manufacturer as it was named on the set. On the other hand: Mostly we create models systematically by reading China's schematic manuals. We then get the name from there. Fortunately Chinese collectors don't care normally for the manufacturer and do search by the brand and name. We still need a solution. And we would like to chain possible manufacturers with several names (at the same time or during the time) to have an overview of the whole life of a manufacturer's products.

Several ways are possible - but only one seems to work: We write what we find and as we find it. Sometimes we will even find names in traditional Chinese, not simplified characters.

Solution in the future:

We have to generate another table in the database and do some programming which takes time - to form a common base for a manufacturer. In other words we will have to write the different names in a new field for a given manufacturer plus a "main name" so that we can bring together automatically all products of the same manufacturer during the different times and cover different methods of writing the same name - like adding the word City or Province etc. or not to include in the name. Ambiguous writings for the same manufacturer are even possible on the company prints.

Naming the company the right way:
Radio versus Wireless

You see here the old writing of Nanjing and 收音机. By courtesy of ZTL.

This is a minor matter because the wording comes almost at the end of the name. I first tended to go the scientific way, to name a company as it is correctly translated. I entered about 100 names this way but I will change them to the naming which is preferred by Chinese users and is even sometimes used by the manufacturer itself: "Radio Manufacturer" instead of "Wireless Manufacturer" as term for the Chinese term: 无线电厂 Pinying: wú​ xiàn ​diàn chǎng​ (Wu Xian Dian Chang), traditional:無線電廠. This means really "Wireless Manufacturer":
无 (trad. 無) = -less / not to have / no / none / not / to lack / un-
线 (trad. 線) = thread / string / wire / line / CL: 條|条, 股, 根
电 (trad. 電) = electric / electricity / electrical
厂 (trad. 廠) = factory / yard / depot / workhouse / works / (industrial) plant

The seldom used name, 收音机 is clear "Radio" or "Receiver" (收 to receive 音 sound 机 machine-aircraft). Pinying (Mandarin) shōu ​yīn ​jī, trad. 收音機. Example is 江苏省 常州市 收音机厂 (Jiangsusheng Changzhoushi Radio Factory)

I did write a fact sheet with all aspects like China had "wired radios" with quite some history we will tell about. But this would be too manyfold and long for here. One is that also Google translates as "Radio" and that Radio is the better known term for a wireless set.

Solution:
In both occasions we write "Radio", not "Wireless" for 无线电

This is accepted by all Chinese radio friends I asked (and was discussed in a forum).

Here we have the case that it is "Radio" but for 无线电厂 ("Wireless").
See also the term Peking for Beijing.
By courtesy of our member Taili Zhang, Beijing (ZTL).

 

Naming the administrative divisions of China

Specially for non Chinese readers it would be interesting to know where the manufacturer is or was producing. The constitution of the PRC provides for three de jure levels of government. Currently, however, there are five practical de facto levels of local government: the province, prefecture, county, township, and village.

Some cities are well known and some would be hard to find. We began first with naming the Province first - but prectically this is not the case on documents or models. Therefore we changed to name the city first where this applies. We will add the province in brackets after the city, followed by a short way of bringing in also the geographical region like North (N), Northeast (NE), East (E), South Central (SC), South West (SW), North West (NW) and South Central (SC). The situation of each municipy or province is given here in detail.

 


Naming the model

The biggest problem is that we often don't know how the model is named in the first place and if there are versions with an English name for export or not. Normally we have at least the Chinese characters, e.g. 熊猫 for Xióng​ māo. ​

Solution:
First model name field = brand.
Second model name field = "name" of the model, mostly a number combination.
Variant: = ONLY used in case:
Brand and name are completely the same for the same manufacturer!

Syntax first field (brand):
If possible the brand or name which is best read on the model in Pinyin or characters - be written first in Pinyin without accents! (or English if it is in English), followed by the Characters - normally simplified. If the model has it in trad. Chinese then we should use both.

If we know that the same model is printed in Pinying for the domestic market and in English for export, we have two solutions: Either use both names - like:
Xiongmao 熊猫 Panda or Hongdeng 红灯 Red lantern
or we create two models - since they show a different face, perhaps even have some other differences.

Brands and Manufacturers

We have to keep in mind that many brands can also be used by many different manufacturers. Only later we might be able to list the different manufacturers for a brand or the different brands for a manufacturer. For that we will create a new table.


We can not expect that a member who uploads a new model has read this and we will have to face many differences to this - but we will try to keep these rules - also by correcting errors of others.

What comes on top and will even be lesser used is that we first enter a schematic manual in the table of literature (done by me when being asked for or when I get to know of) - to choose the reference - for having later a full list of references about a certain literature. We can even use as a selection in the "Fully detailed Model Search" for members only. With this one can select by about 30 different fields of selection.

At last we also have to enter a literature we choose from for when uploading schematics - for having good results with the "Schematic Finder". Quality has its price! RMorg is not a village where you find the "interesting place(s) by just going out of the house - but a big "Radio City" where you need street maps - which we provide in the form of the blue "Info-Help-Buttons" you can click at the top right of each page!

 
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Chinas Fernsehgeschichte - Wie das Fernsehen nach China kam
Wolfgang Scheida
03.Jun.10
  1

China - Televisionen in Land der aufgehenden Sonne:

Chinas Fernsehgeschichte - Wie das Fernsehen nach China kam
 
Basisstandard: 220 V 50 Hz / CCIR D/K mit modifiziertem Raster 
 
Kapitel:
  1. Die Anfänge des Pekinger Fernsehstudios
  2. Die ersten Fernsehempfangsgeräte
  3. Erste chinesische Fachliteratur zum Thema Fernsehen
Am 1. Mai 1958 um 19h erfolgte die HF-Ausstrahlung der ersten Fernsehversuchssendungen in Peking durch die Pekinger Fernseh Station dem Vorläufer der späteren CCTV.
 
 
 
Bild: Zhu De Vize Vorsitzender der Zentral Regierung inspiziert die Pekinger Fernsehstation. Rechts im Bild eine Bildschirmaufnahme der Versuchssendungen (Bildnachweis 1).
 
In den frühen Tagen der Pekinger Fernsehstation gab es nur eine eingeschränkte Zahl an Programmsendungen.
Der Mehrzahl des ausgestrahlten Programms bestand aus Filmen und Kunstaufführungen.
Mit Ausnahme von Dokumentationen und Schulungsprogrammen waren alle anderen Fernsehprogramme live Sendungen.
Während der Versuchsphase des Fernsehens gab es lediglich zwei Programme pro Woche je drei bis vier Stunden auf Sendung sowie Nachrichten wie auch Programme mit kulturellen Inhalt und lokalen Gemeinde Themen.
 
 
 
Bild: Das “Peking Fernsehen” begann mit dem regulären Fernsehdienst am 2. September 1958. Beachte das noch handgeschriebene Kalenderblatt rechts im Bild. (Bildnachweis 2)
 
Mit 1. Jänner 1960 führte Peking Fernsehen ein neues Programmschema ein, dass die wöchentliche Programmzeit auf acht Stunden erhöhte einschließlich einem Ganztagesprogramm am Sonntag mit einem Duzend fester Programm Kolumnen.
Das neue Pekinger Fernsehstudiogebäude mit 600 m² Fläche beinhaltete drei Fernsehstudios, einen Kinosaal und zwei Regieräume und war mit Mai 1960 bezugsfertig.
Dieses neue Gebäude verbesserte die Entwicklung des Peking Fernsehens außerordentlich.
Der 1. Mai 1978 brachte dann die offizielle Umbenennung des Peking Fernsehens in „China Central Television Station“, kurz CCTV, veranlasst durch das Zentral Komitee der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas.
 
 
 
Bild: Frühe Studioaufnahme des CCTV Nachrichten Senders (Bildnachweis 3)
 

 

  
China’s erste Fernsehempfangsgeräte
 
Das Modell Peking 820
 
China’s erster Fernsehapparat ist der „Peking 820“, ein 34 cm/ 14 Zoll schwarz/weiß Röhren Fernsehgerät mit CCIR Norm B VHF Tuner mit chinesischem Raster. Hergestellt vom Tianjin Funkwerk am 17. März 1958.
 
Als 1957 das Zentral Komitee der Kommunistischen Partei China’s den Start des Fernsehdienstes anordnete wies das Ministerium der 2. Mechanischen Industrie der Pekinger Rundfunkausrüstungsfabrik die Fertigung von Fernseh Sendeausrüstung zu, während dem Tianjin Funkwerk die Herstellung von Fernsehempfangsgeräten zugewiesen wurde.
Das Tianjin Funkwerk stellte ein Ingeneutteam aus acht Mitgliedern für das Fernsehprojekt zusammen und bestimmte Herrn Huang Shiji als Chefingenieur.
Das Ingenieurteam kaufte verschiedene sowjetische Fernsehempfänger und studierte deren Schaltung.
 
Sie entschieden sich für das sowjetische Radio Fernsehkombigerätemodel „XXXX“ (möglicherweise Serie "START") als Muster und bestückten es mit Röhren aus chinesischer Produktion.  
 
Der Prototyp war Mitte März 1958 fertig und bestand in der Nacht des 17. März 1958 den Empfangstest.
Das Testprogramm der Pekinger Fernsehstation wurde mit klarem Bild und Ton empfangen vergleichbar mit den sowjetischen Referenzempfängern. Damit war der erste chinesische Fernsehempfänger geboren.   
 
 
 
Bild: China’s erster Fernsehapparat ist der „Peking 820“, ein 34 cm/ 14 Zoll schwarz/weiß Röhren Fernsehgerät (Bildnachweis 4)
Vergleiche mit seinen als mögliche Vorbilder verwendeten sowjetischen Modellen wie den START.
 
 

Das Modell Shanghai 101

Im April 1958 wurde der Shanghai Rundfunkausrüstungsfabrik die Herstellung von Fernsehgeräten in Shanghai zugewiesen.

Das Werk stellte ein Team aus sechs Ingenieuren zusammen denen Chefingenieur Herr Zhou Shu vorstand.
Das Team begab sich zum Tianjin Funkwerk um die Arbeiten am Peking 820 Projekt zu untersuchen und brachten technisches Material und Meßausrüstung zurück.
Die Gestaltung und der Zusammenbau benötigte zwei Monate bis am 22. Juli 1958 zwei Prototypen fertig gestellt waren die eine Reihe von geometrischen Testbildern von der „Zentralen Rundfunkstation“ empfingen aber noch nicht die volle Kompatibilität zu den technischen Spezifikationen eingehalten haben.
Es folgten technische Modifikationen durch das Ingenieurteam und erneute Tests am 24. Juli 1958 deren erfüllte Meßwerte sogar die der Referenzschaltung übertrafen. 

Bild: Erster in Shanghai hergestellter Fernsehapparat. Der Shanghai 101, ein 44 cm 17 Zoll schwarz/weiß Röhrenempfänger; 

(Bildnachweis: 5)

Übersetzt aus dem Englischen am 3. Juni 2010 von Fernsehhistoriker Wolfgang Scheida /Wien

Der Originaltext stammt von unserem chinesischen RM.org Sammlerkollegen Mr. „Jack“ Songping Wan.

Hinweis: Mit obigen Stichtag ist eine inhaltliche Prüfung der Daten und der Chronik durch den Übersetzer noch NICHT erfolgt!  

 

Allgemein: 

Chinesische Fachmagazine & Literatur mit der Fachleuten auch die Technik des Fernsehens nähergebracht wurde

 

 
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Radio literature for the People's Republic of China (PRC)
Ernst Erb
25.May.10
  1

China had a radio industry well before the Second World War, since first transmissions were started in 1923. At that time many sets have been imported, mainly from the USA or were hand made sets. But soon the own production started in small scales.

As in Western Countries, the radio industry in China produced marketing material like leaflets, flyers and operating instructions, schematics etc. Theses sources are very essential to get a most complete and accurate radio catalog.

With this thread we can list essential material which enables to identify radios or document them.
We can also use it to add documentation in form of atachments.

Ernst Erb
25.May.10
  2

Transistor Radio Manual 1982 - see the content pages as attachment.

Attachments

Wolfgang Scheida
26.May.10
  3

Chinese radio related literature and magazines:

All kind of electronic related topics have been covered by the following Chinese magazines from the late 1940's up to the end of the 1990's:

Wireless, Radio, Television, Radar, computer, calculators, remote controls, electronic education, early export models, military technique, electricity, space science & satellites, telephone, electronic components, PA systems, link systems,....

The titels are:

  • WUXIANDIAN VU DIANSHI;
  • RADIO; 
  • Electronic Technology;
  • Popular Electricity; Radio Magazine;
  • KEXUE HUABAO;
  • ZHISHI JIUSHI LILIANG; 
  • WUXIANDIAN JISHU;
  • DIANSHIJIE;
  • DIANZI JISHU;

  

W.S. 5/2010  

 
People's Republic of China
End of forum contributions about this country

  
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