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List of manufacturers United States of America (USA)

List of radio manufacturers: the radio manufacturers of German-speaking countries and a beginning for other countries. Please inform us of other radio manufacturers.
Alle   A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
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Text/Pictures for United States of America (USA) 
 
  Manufacturers by alphabet Model count Models with Total Text about manufacturer available
Total <1930 >1942 Pictures available Schematics available Images and schematics available Tubes available Transistors available Pictures available Schematics available
60 Images about maker available 2643 | 0 5 2270 1129 1954 795 2094 339 2917 17648 3
8 Images about maker available 272 | 0 1 69 130 219 80 263   442 454 2
11 Images about maker available 203 | 0 95   76 90 24 155   291 110 4
23 Images about maker available 964 | 0 42 317 563 628 241 862 35 1416 1506 2
18 Images about maker available 102 | 6 96   75 43 28 71   506 72 4
1 Images about maker available 189 | 0   38 51 172 40 181 1 207 566 2
2 Images about maker available 112 | 0   21 21 107 17 101   42 187 1
8 Images about maker available 219 | 0 76 4 80 123 30 202   425 252 2
45 Images about maker available 632 | 0   481 411 514 335 490 129 1839 1900 2
33 Images about maker available 500 | 1 204   314 324 218 446   2452 836 4
1 Images about maker available 111 | 0 26 1 37 56 9 104   105 66 4
3 Images about maker available 106 | 0   4 29 75 5 105   67 104 1
6 Images about maker available 373 | 0 17 203 141 307 105 354 70 347 1115 2
9 Images about maker available 427 | 0 1 99 193 370 147 388   548 1287 2
21 Images about maker available 302 | 0   290 251 183 141 201 78 840 1412 2
10 Images about maker available 204 | 0   154 180 110 93 183 7 614 520 1
12 Images about maker available 205 | 0 13 30 138 70 46 121   890 510 2
2 Images about maker available 303 | 4   303 170 268 165 256 11 257 2248 1
2 Images about maker available 142 | 0   142 123 28 24 16 105 708 198 1
3 Images about maker available 123 | 0 123   95 2 2 33   671 3 2
11 Images about maker available 142 | 3   2 71 106 40 136   200 199 1
  131 | 0     19 119 7 127   36 119 2
2 Images about maker available 124 | 0     68 40 16 112 1 161 43 2
7 Images about maker available 160 | 0 24 9 69 129 56 153   288 446 1
9 Images about maker available 116 | 0 27 21 73 50 23 76 8 163 108 3
52 Images about maker available 1647 | 0 217 701 994 1124 706 1320 15 4923 5426 3
5 Images about maker available 110 | 0 101   36 46 14 97   173 86 3
18 Images about maker available 141 | 0 135 2 111 10 9 85   805 11 3
1 Images about maker available 319 | 0   39 176 281 143 311   626 451 2
6 Images about maker available 423 | 0 5 85 189 326 133 397 7 528 664 3
1 Images about maker available 149 | 0   149 91 48 41 42 79 375 288 1
16 Images about maker available 248 | 61   228 128 207 99 215 6 392 3971 2
3 Images about maker available 156 | 0   156 151 86 85 94 13 771 282 2
9 Images about maker available 130 | 7 62   44 60 12 119   185 88 2
14 Images about maker available 102 | 0   91 94 33 32 19 1 203 145 2
45 Images about maker available 1842 | 9 5 1102 980 1370 757 1438 185 5569 6641 5
  142 | 0   97 38 129 28 139   85 440 2
30 Images about maker available 142 | 25 39 57 118 20 15 21 1 461 35 4
38 Images about maker available 718 | 0 133 127 420 488 256 668   1646 1290 3
22 Images about maker available 146 | 0   4 84 117 58 145 1 436 784 3
18 Images about maker available 129 | 0 60   71 60 19 98   221 87 4
37 Images about maker available 392 | 1   224 274 321 218 330 5 1207 2158 3
9 Images about maker available 200 | 16 148 37 87 128 34 174 1 603 313 1
3 Images about maker available 209 | 0 1   125 84 29 197   171 105 2
1 Images about maker available 376 | 0   246 254 349 241 354 10 681 2016 4
26 Images about maker available 538 | 0   537 435 155 136 170 297 2064 1356 3
12 Images about maker available 113 | 0 99 4 69 58 32 95   375 70 1
6 Images about maker available 129 | 0 124   72 42 23 121   395 58 2
  573 | 1   305 264 526 225 523 39 663 2397 4
8 Images about maker available 377 | 1 12 110 94 345 69 369   319 1078 2
74 Images about maker available 2641 | 1008 18 1941 1871 1864 1236 1663 861 7553 11208 2
16 Images about maker available 138 | 0     99 126 88 137   568 367 2
10 Images about maker available 189 | 0 35 101 175 73 66 61 16 629 162 3
21 Images about maker available 182 | 0 37 28 107 126 70 171   427 264 2
3 Images about maker available 110 | 0 1 64 50 102 42 109   124 385 2
  105 | 0   2 14 89 10 95   61 150 2
25 Images about maker available 186 | 0 109 2 114 59 34 147   735 73 3
16 Images about maker available 200 | 0 36 8 118 154 85 185   632 589 3
22 Images about maker available 816 | 0   686 423 380 285 576 88 2096 3055 4
  105 | 0     34 64 16 98   148 64 2
11 Images about maker available 138 | 0 12 61 82 56 40 105 4 369 260 2
3 Images about maker available 243 | 0   243 204 83 81 71 167 887 492 2
14 Images about maker available 658 | 0   658 637 471 462 353 220 3616 1581 3
7 Images about maker available 349 | 6   341 314 120 120 101 192 1275 1113 3
16 Images about maker available 134 | 0 2 105 117 25 22 55 11 592 73 3
1 Images about maker available 476 | 0   475 185 444 167 444 22 296 4630 2
17 Images about maker available 352 | 0 55 38 143 211 86 309   483 419 2
8 Images about maker available 192 | 0 1   84 145 63 183   365 224 2
8 Images about maker available 108 | 0   108 79 6 6 16 92 336 30 2
8 Images about maker available 141 | 0 65   71 67 27 133   407 131 1
6 Images about maker available 101 | 0 50 2 46 67 31 99   229 132 3
42 Images about maker available 1299 | 35 29 291 1104 394 261 1052 134 3058 855 3
1 Images about maker available 144 | 0   144 114 6 6 11 130 475 7 1
31 Images about maker available 877 | 5 51 745 419 592 207 530 150 1518 4925 5
10 Images about maker available 334 | 0   107 163 275 115 314 1 621 733 1
4 Images about maker available 378 | 0   378 366 69 68 22 313 2022 343 3
8 Images about maker available 110 | 0   110 83 77 59 96   224 333 1
2 Images about maker available 182 | 0   182 160 26 24 3 155 415 42 1
69 Images about maker available 316 | 0 66 47 177 213 90 305   497 636 3
1 Images about maker available 323 | 0 8 218 278 163 144 196 14 1799 678 3
21 Images about maker available 2065 | 1 43 1094 1288 1590 865 1834 136 5303 7211 4
60 Images about maker available 3919 | 1338   3616 2757 3567 2503 3205 710 6600 53835 4
11 Images about maker available 430 | 0 25 210 275 162 119 308 9 1061 865 3
6 Images about maker available 464 | 0   462 199 416 175 415 28 506 4462 1
  118 | 0   4 63     112   100   1
16 Images about maker available 124 | 0     78 54 9 122   179 60 2
13 Images about maker available 312 | 0   183 164 266 120 296 8 527 1616 1
1 Images about maker available 111 | 0 17   42 66 22 109   104 75 1
75 Images about maker available 3610 | 325 108 2140 2073 2932 1795 3075 234 9388 31930 5
9 Images about maker available 498 | 8 35 104 218 370 134 484   1017 1001 2
7 Images about maker available 1031 | 0 3 1025 881 83 80 49 809 3836 423 3
  106 | 0   94 20 105 19 105   42 199 1
11 Images about maker available 236 | 0   2 117 63 7 194   185 68 2
9 Images about maker available 250 | 751   249 138 164 56 39 37 276 543 2
168 Images about maker available 4721 | 1011 208 3356 2799 3822 2226 3605 688 12439 49156 4
13 Images about maker available 155 | 0 39 27 93 112 61 121   324 215 2
1 Images about maker available 107 | 0   106 93 1 1   98 443 1 2
10 Images about maker available 132 | 0   132 114 46 40 91 36 658 174 2
9 Images about maker available 192 | 0 24 32 114 46 31 85   486 319 2
33 Images about maker available 4661 | 0 92 2957 2980 3237 1814 3669 586 11136 27184 4
 
Under the term radio manufacturer, we also include producers, for example, of parts of radios, "radio-related equipment", etc. produced for companies or commercial radio. Manufacturers of old radios are as covered as completely as possible for the German-speaking countries, but only partially for other countries. There are thousands of radio manufacturers.

Text/Pictures for United States of America (USA)


Excerpt from the book "Radios von gestern" (by Ernst Erb), published in 1989.

A liberal open-market environment that merely ensures that a mix-up of wavebands is prevented facilitates the awarding of licenses for the broadcasting and/or receiving of radio frequencies. Also contributing to the early and rapid development of radio broadcasting in the U.S. are the Audion (triode) by Dr. Lee de Forest, as well as a period of peacetime in the home country.

In 1899 Marconi establishes in New Jersey the American Marcony Wireless Telegraph Company. The first exchange of signals takes place in 1901 from the station in Siasconset on Nantucket island. It's over a distance of 40 miles [151]. The same year Marconi experiments with oversea transmissions. De Forest founds in 1901 the Wireless Telegraph Company of America. Abraham Schwartz (later on White!) establishes together with de Forest another company in which Schwartz concentrates on raising "venture capital". This company, called American de Forest Wireless Tel. Company, is capitalized with 10 million Dollars. With its 27 land stations it is by 1906 the biggest broadcasting company in the U.S. Infringements of patents held by Fessenden on electrolytic detectors force a switch to silicone detectors for which General H. H. Dunwoody had obtained patents in 1906. In November de Forest leaves the company. At that time White restructures it into the United Wireless Telegraph Company. The "American" is absorbed in 1907. In the "United", C.C. Wilson assumes the presidency. The company goes 1911 into receivership and as a result of a lost patent case Marconi acquires it in 1912. Now, the Marconi company takes possession of 70 land and 500 offshore (boat mounted) stations and thus becomes the only broadcasting enterprise of any importance in the United States. At the request of the government GE acquires in 1919 from the English owners a majority interest in American Marconi. A few months later, that share package is used to form together with Western Electric, joined at a later stage by Westinghouse, the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). The de Forest company is during the first decades of the 1900s the only serious competitor in the market for amateur and commercial stations. Production stops in 1925.

The U.S. navy returns in March of 1920 all broadcasting stations to the original owners. Immediately, RCA installs several high-frequency alternators (New Brunswick NJ, Chatham Mass., Bolinas CA, Kahuku on Hawaii) which outperform the 500-kW-arc transmitter. These arc transmitters are already six times more powerful than the spark transmitters. Transmitters based on tube technology are at this stage suitable only for smaller applications.

Broadcast Stations

In 1919 Dr. Frank Conrad, an employee of Westinghouse, sends out signals in Pittsburgh, PA, which can be received in a shopping center in the same city. It is a promotion for detector radios that can be bought there for 10 Dollars. For [151] thus begins the worldwide radio broadcasting (see Belgium 1913!). According to other documents it is the Marconi station XWA in Canada that commences radio broadcasting in 1919 as well. Westinghouse takes over Dr. Conrad's KDKA station in 1920 and commercializes the idea. The station gains some popularity during the presidential election (Warren G. Harding). The opening concert takes place on November 2, 1920.

The Pittsburgh radio station, its power increased in the summer of 1921, broadcasts now concerts on a regular basis. Though everyone may operate a radio receiver, the interest remains negligible. Despite of this, Westinghouse sets up a small station in Newark NJ to broadcast as a test the boxing match between Carpentier - Dempsey. The response is such that only two weeks later a radio station opens up in New York City. It offers daily news reports, concert presentations, as well as a special evening program for children and general night programming. It triggers such a run on radio receivers that it requires a special relationship with a radio manufacturer to be reasonably sure that there will be a radio under the Christmas tree in 1921 [159].

1922 sees a rapid rise in demand. In the U.S. sixty radio stations operate on March 1, 1922, In November of the same year the number has risen to 564! These numbers are from "Radio Today", Geneva Research Centre Geneva (Article "The Present State of Broadcasting in the World". It appeared in summer of 1942, research supported by the Rockefeller Foundation). Statistics for the U.S. from 01.01,1923 provide these figures: 569 major stations (likely all of them commercial radio stations), 16,898 amateur stations (at that time apparently permitted to transmit "radio-like" broadcasts), 167 municipal stations for trade purposes, 12 overseas stations, 126 transmitters at technical colleges, 291 test and 201 special stations for direction finding devices, etc., 39 coastal stations and 2,762 offshore (on board) stations.

Radio stations WEAE of New York and WNAC of Boston agree on April 1, 1923 on a broadcasting partnership [149]. The same year advertising becomes officially permitted [155]. In 1924 an estimated 3 million private receivers, 30,000 amateur and 5,000 commercial broadcasting stations exist. Of that, by November 1924 a total of 1,105 stations are traced back to manufacturers, distributors, news agencies, hotels, railway companies, church communities and other organizations. The stations are all transmitting on wave bands of between 231m and 545m; they operate on average at approximately one kW output. Policemen in Chicago employ portable receivers whose antenna is sewn into their uniform in a zigzag pattern. The Department of the Interior works on a plan that is meant to bring schooling via radio on a regular basis to over 2 million children living in very remote regions of the country. The major station Virginia transmits twice a week educational material. Though radio listeners pay no fees, radio stations are almost exclusively owned by private interests. The government merely awards the license and directs waveband and broadcasting times. Stations up to 500 Watt (A-License) are allocated frequencies within the 231 - 300m range. Class B stations, those with higher power, are in the 300 - 545m band. Some frequencies within this range are claimed by the coast guard (286 - 288, 300 and 450m) Amateurs are allowed to transmit on 150 - 200m and amateurs who use their installation for educational purposes have 200 - 222m assigned to them. Wavebands 222 - 231 are reserved for the government regulated air traffic. Wavebands under or above the listed bands are put aside for sea and air traffic stations (545 - 1277), scientific purpose (1277 - 1304m) or so far undefined government use.

On September 14, 1926, RCA establishes a subsidiary, namely National Broadcasting Corporation [149]. NBC maintains two networks of stations, the "red network" and the "blue network" with a total of 244 outlets [155]. In 1927 the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) comes into being. A community of common interests is formed in 1934 when several stations get together to form the network Mutual Broadcasting System (MBS). By 1936 MBS is in serious competition with the two national networks. Two thirds of all stations belong to these three networks. Meanwhile, Crosley Corporation, Associated Broadcasters Inc., General Electric Company, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company and the non-commercial World Wide Broadcasting Foundation of Boston operate on short-wave. In 1934 the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), an agency of the federal government in Washington, assumes control of frequencies and signal strength. FCC also functions in a supervisory role over the general administration of broadcasting companies. Basically, any qualified person is still permitted to set up a station. Broadcasts with political content require that authorized representatives of all parties enjoy equal rights.

FM stations

The work of Major Armstrong in the early '30s dealing with frequency modulation reaches its peak with the November 1935 publication of "A Method of Reducing Disturbances in Radio-Signalling by a System of Frequency Modulation" (Institute of Radio Engineers, NY). Following some experimental broadcasts the FCC releases in May of 1940 thirty-five channels in the frequency band 42 to 50 MHz (6-7, 15m). Each station has at its disposal 200 kHz of which 75 kHz are to be used for audio broadcasting. The remaining bandwidth may be used for video broadcasting. According to White's Radio Log of April 1944, there are since the beginning of 1944 already 51 commercial FM stations in existence. The number of sold FM receivers reaches allegedly one million. Some networks are connected from 1941 onwards through radio links. Armstrong puts in 1941 his 17 FM-patents free of charge at the disposal of his government for use in the defence of the country.

Magazines

In the 1910's Gernsback, Doubleday and Scientific American [151] figure prominently in the first publications on the subject of "wireless transmission". Other periodicals such as Modern Electrics and The Electrical Experimenter favor similar content. The publications of the radio amateur organization American Radio Relay League play a special role in spreading the word about the new medium.

By 1924 there are over a dozen major journals on the subject. The two best known ones, both monthlies published in New York, are likely the Wireless Age and Radio News. Soon the number of publications having radio as the theme literally explodes. Among the better known ones are Radio Daily publishing on a daily basis; Broadcasting & Broadcast Advertising, as well as Variety are weeklies. Radio-Craft appears once a month; the quarterlies include Air Law Review, RCA Review, Talks and The Public Opinion Quarterly [155]. It should further be noted that some time after WW2 numerous collector clubs were formed. Members have the choice to declare any such membership to have it appear in their respective profile.

Radio Industry

A defined radio industry develops very early. In its initial stages production could hardly keep pace with demand. According to [152] Mignon introduces in 1914 with the RLC2 a detector radio for the general public. Other models by this manufacturer are not known. Quite in contrast is the "de Forest" company which in [152] appears only in 1919. However, by 1930 de Forest has 40 models on the market. The company's products from 1907 onwards are initially not classified as "broadcast receivers". The Adams-Morgan Co. builds in 1916 a radio device, follows up in 1921 with additional models but ceases production in 1925 after having come out with a total of 17 different models. Other companies pursuing this new line of business include Kennedy Co. (until 1930 74 models), Radio Apparatus (3 models), Commerce and Electro Importing limit themselves to offering only one model respectively.

How did the development and production of radio equipment really get started in the U.S.?
Prior to the time when broadcasting as a movement took off, there were only a few commercial stations and the steadily growing number of amateurs who needed a receiver. (See the chapter on amateur radio enthusiasts in "Radios von gestern"). In 1920 Armstrong searches for license-takers for his regeneration (reaction) patent as annual fees and lawyer costs become a heavy burden. Up to that time amateurs more or less built their receiving devices themselves and thus avoided paying a license fee. In an advertisement Armstrong offers to the growing number of commercial manufacturers the legal use of his patent for a fee of 5% of the selling price. In approximately this sequence the following companies accept the offer:

American Marconi (for 2 stations only), International Radio Telegraph Co., Inc; A.H. Grebe & Co., Chicago Radio Laboratory (Zenith from 15.02.1920); Clapp-Eastham Co. (on 18.04.1920); Cutting & Washington Inc. (on 07.07.1920, company later renamed Colonial); Adams-Morgan Co.; The Precision Equipment Co. (later on taken over by Crosley); Jones Radio Co. (Kellogg affiliation); Mignon Mfg. Export Corp.; Tri-City Electric Mfg. Co. (became supplier to Montgomery Ward); Klitzen Radio Mfg. Co. (Michigan affiliation); The Radio Shop (later on Echophone); Oard Radio Laboratories; Pennsylvania Wireless Mfg. Co.; The C.D. Tuska Co.; Radio Craft Co., Inc. (on 20.09.1920, later bought out by de Forest); The Colin B. Kennedy Co.; Eastern Radio Co.; Chelsea Radio Co. Still in 1920, Armstrong manages to sell his rights on the regeneration (reaction or positive feedback) and the superheterodyne patents to Westinghouse which brings those patents into its association with RCA. Now, no additional companies can obtain a license on these patents. A monopoly on the production of good receivers is, however, at that time no longer within reach of RCA - thanks to all those mainly young radio amateurs who run basement operations with small production runs. With the exception of the two first named firms, all of the above companies fall into this category. Their products are sold through advertisements. Some of these small entrepreneurs ride the radio boom of 1921 and grow into big corporations or are at least successful for a few years until TRF (radios with Tuned Radio Frequency) and superhets in 1923/24 spell the end of the regenerative TRF. Zenith, Colonial, Grebe, Kennedy and Crosley belong into this group. A few manufacturers of low-priced sets, e.g. Crosley, stay with the regenerative system a while longer. Selectivity is in these early stages in the U.S. no issue as all stations broadcast on 360m and switch for weather and market reports to 485m. Transmitter power is small, distances between stations substantial, which ensures generally good reception with a regeneration TRF set unless there is a nearby transmitting station.

In the spring of 1922 major stations are allocated the 400m band. One also anticipates an annual growth in radio receivers of one million home made units against only less than 100,000 commercially produced sets. Only as of May 1923 do radio stations transmit in the entire broadcast band. With that, selectivity gains more importance. The answer to that requirement comes via the Neutrodyne or (the more expensive) Superhet. Exceptions are some regenerative receivers with iron core transformer, such as the D10 from de Forest or the 61 from Federal.

The following companies are licenced by Hazeltine to produce Neutrodyne receivers:
American Radio & Research Corp. (later Crosley); F.A.D. Andrea, Inc. (FADA); Carloyd Electric & Radio Corp. (Malone-Lemmon); Eagle Radio Corp.; Freed-Eisemann Radio Corp.; Garod Corp.; Radio Service Laboratories, Inc. (bought out by Gilfillan); Howard Mfg. Co.; Broadcast Mfrs., Inc. (bought out by King Quality Products, Inc.); Wm. J. Murdock Co. (bought by Philco); Stromberg-Carlson Telephone Mfg. Co.; R.E. Thompson Mfg. Co.; Ware Radio Corp.; Workrite Mfg. Co.

During the years 1923-25 the scene is dominated by sets with three big control knobs; Charles Freshman with its low-priced models Freshman-Masterpiece holds a commanding market share. The company sells 125,000 sets in seven successive months from August 1924 on. Atwater Kent circumvents patents through skillful use of wiring capacitance and builds about 100,000 breadboard models plus half a million enclosed sets; i.e. Atwater Kent sells in 1925 more sets than all the other Neutrodyne-TRF radio manufacturers combined. In response to the wishes for simplified control by the ever growing user community Thermiodyne in July and Magnavox in September of 1924 link the variable condensers so that for best reception only the trimmer needs to be attended to. Mohawk introduces in November of 1924 the first trimmer-less one-knob radio. Zenith is first with a station-dial which 1926-28 becomes the standard feature.

Also in 1924, first tests are conducted in the U.S. with radios drawing their power from the main. Dynamotive Radio Corp. brings in July with the Dynergy RC250 the first such radio to market. However, the set still uses battery tubes 01A in series as per the patent by Samuel P. Levenberg, No. 1670893 of 22.05.1928; registered on December 8, 1923. Although the radio sells well, Dynamotive does not survive the year 1925. The Super-X from Zenith in September and the MA20 by Mu-Rad in October are flops. The first practical AC-main-set sold in the U.S. may well be the Radiola 30 marketed by RCA from September 1925. Only the indirectly heated tubes from McCullough, made by Kellogg, open up new possibilities. Efforts by Arcturus and Sparton follow and RCA in 1927 with the 226 and 227 tubes, and the model Radiola 17, sets the new industry standard.

By the end of 1927, U.S. companies have sold a total of 13,250,000 receivers (total revenue 2 billion U.S. $). Demand in 1928 is up from 7.5 million units the previous year by 20% to 9 million units and increases again in 1929 by 31% to 11.8 million units. In spite of these growth rates, the number of manufacturers (600 to 1200, depending on whose statistics one uses) shrinks drastically within only four years to a tenth [287] of the previous number. Many companies simply miss the jump to radios drawing their power from the main; others can not handle the ever more complex circuitry by now required to ensure good reception. Patent issues play a bigger role now as well.

A further six pages from the book exceed the available space here - I may bring them in at a later date as a Forum contribution. This text has been translated by Alfred Zeeb, Canada. Thank you, Alfred for your efforts.

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